ISSN : 2664-3464

 

Articles:

 

Editorial Board, Chief Editor’s Note & Contents

1.

Title

Participative Management in Organizational Decision-Making:

A Study in a Developing Country

Author

Zahed Mannan

Associate Professor (Management)

Open School, Bangladesh Open University

Abstract

Workers’ participation in management, regardless of its dissension and conflicts, is being increasingly embraced in different countries, both in capitalist and socialist, predominantly in the European countries, and in the Third World, as an ultimate approach of industrial democracy. In Bangladesh, several attempts have been made through legislation to introduce joint consultation-type participation schemes but all are in vain. The failures are attributed, in the main, to the non-enforcement of laws, illiteracy of workers and apathy of management. No empirical research has been carried out to find out the real reasons. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elicit the attitudes of the actors in the industrial relations system, i.e., workers, management and government, towards workers’ participation in management as a whole and to make an objective analysis of the same. The study found that there is considerable scope for the introduction and development of appropriate workers’ participation program in the public sector industries if certain preconditions are met. It is, in fact, an attitudinal study in a large nationalized industrial enterprise in Bangladesh. 
 

2.

Title

Identifying the English Communication Needs of the Engineering Learners in Bangladesh Through Needs Analysis: An Esp Perspective

Author

Dr. AKM Zakaria

Professor

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS)

Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET), Gazipur

Abstract

This needs analysis study aims at identifying the engineering students’ academic and professional communication needs. To attain the objective, the study makes extensive use of survey through students’ questionnaire, semi-structured interview with ESP teachers and classroom observation checklist for data collection of the study. The researcher has adopted mix-method of research for this explorative study. The qualitative data have been analyzed using thick description and pattern eliciting techniques and the quantitative data have been analyzed to measure the relative frequencies and rank order in terms of students’ priority of their learning needs using SPSS. The analysis and findings of the study seem to suggest that there is a huge gap between what the students perceive as important for their academic and professional purpose and what the teachers teach or what the university offers in the curriculum. Hence, the study attempts to offer some valuable suggestions based on the findings to bridge this gap by addressing the issues in the ESP instruction in the curriculum. 

3.

Title

Status and Potentials of ICT Integration into Higher Education: A Case Study at Bangladesh Open University

Author

Asma Akter Shelly

Assistant Professor (Finance), School of Business

Bangladesh Open University

Abstract

Information technology integrated into higher education of country enriches its acceptability. The aim of this study is to find the current status of ICT integration into higher education programs at Bangladesh Open University (BOU) which is the only university provides education in open and distance mode. Data was collected from two graduate programs running by School of Business of BOU.  A, total sample of 120 students was selected randomly. Structured questionnaire based on literature review was used for interviewing the sampled respondents. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze the data. It was also taken an effort to find the comfortability level of the graduate students using ICT as well as to assess the potential of ICT used in higher education at Bangladesh Open University. In future, the findings of this report may contribute to find out the possibility and potentials of ICT integration in other programs of BOU. 

4.

Title

Quality of Learning Resources of Commonwealth Executive Master of Business Administration Programme: A Case of Bangladesh Open University

Author

Md. Mahfuzur Rahman

Assistant Professor (Economics), School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

 

Professor Mostafa Azad Kamal

Dean, School of Business, Bangladesh Open University

Abstract

Commonwealth Executive Master of Business Administration (CEMBA) programme is one of the prestigious programme in Bangladesh for making skilled professionals.  For ensuring better learning engagements quality of learning resources plays a crucial role. This paper focuses on the quality of learning resources used in CEMBA Programme as per the learners’ perceptions as well as the tutors’ opinions. The paper also verifies the effectiveness of the learning resources in engaging the learners meaningfully. The paper finally sheds light on the scope of SDG integration into CEMBA courses. 

5.

Title

Syed Martuza’s Idea of Language as Exposed in His Poem ‘‘সাঁই, এক বিনে মাওলা এক বিনে”

Author

Dr. Ali Azgor Talukder

Associate Professor & Head

Department of English

BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology

Abstract

This paper reads one of Syed Martuza’s poems from the perspective of Ferdinand de Saussure’s idea of language. Like the other verses of Bangla literature in the Middle Ages, the poem is oriented by religious beliefs. However, this paper finds that, in this poem, Martuza presents a discourse on language where he identifies the nature of language as it is identified in modern linguistics. Like Saussure, he holds the notion that our reality is linguistic as we come into terms with reality with language. However, while Saussure says that there are no pre-existing ideas and nothing is distinct before the appearance of language, Martuza recognizes the language-independent existence of the reality. Moreover, his idea of language embodies modern discourses on semiotics and the role of human thought on language and vice versa. Thus this study reveals that though oriented by religious beliefs, the verses of Bangla literature in the Middle Ages are not detached from the social realities. 

6.

Title

Democratization in Bangladesh: Challenges and Suggestions

Author

Md. Kabirul Hasan

Lecturer (Political Science), School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Languages (SSHL)

Bangladesh Open University

 

Md. Manzorul Islam Nayeem

Lecturer, Department of Political Science, Brahmanbaria Government

Women College, Brahmanbaria,

Abstract

After a long period of the turbulent journey, parliamentary democracy has been restored in Bangladesh in 1991 but political governance of the country is still mired by innumerable ills. It broadly contains a wide arena of confrontation, competition, monopolization of state institutions and resources by the party in power. This trend of politics has tremendously weakened the formal accountability mechanisms and put governance in crisis. The party that wins the election absolutely monopolizes the state apparatus with ‘winner takes all’ attitude, leaving little scope for the losing party to take part in the process of governance, which leads them to be violent, destructive and irresponsible. In the monopolization process, the ruling party exerts a strong control over all the key state institutions and this is the actual scenario of democratization in Bangladesh and it is limited only in holding elections and demagogue of politicians. We have democratic institutions (Political party, parliament and election commission etc) but sorry to say that these are not institutionalized and vibrant, these are puppet like and inactive. In this article, we are going to discuss the obstacles to institutionalize the democracy in Bangladesh and giving some suggestions to make the way of democratization smooth. 

7.

Title

What Did Taslima Want?:

Nirbachita Kalam Reconsidered

Author

Manmay Zafar

Associate Professor, Department English,

Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh.

Abstract

Taslima Nasrin’s Nirbachita Kalam (1991) documented a young woman doctor’s struggle to get established in Dhaka. Nothing escaped Taslima’s discerning eyes, be that the difficulties she faced as a single woman while renting a place, or the physical and psychological abuses her female patients suffered, or the sexual propositions she herself received from the so-called progressive intellectuals. Nirbachita Kalam was unique because of the way Taslima’s forthrightness illuminated her analysis of women’s precarious condition in Bangladesh. That’s why a quarter-century after its publication, her first book of non-fictional writings is still in print, both in Bangladesh and India, having attained the status of a minor classic of Bengali literature. 

8.

Title

Spatial Inequality of Urban Environmental Services: A Case Study of Dhaka City Corporation

Author

Shahina Akter

Assistant Professor (Geography)

Open School, Bangladesh Open University

 

Dr. Nurul Islam Nazem

Professor (Geography)

Geography & Environment, University of Dhaka

 

Abstract

Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the world with total 164.7 million population in the year of 2017 and it will be 169.77 million (projected) in 2020 (United Nations 2017). On the other hand, Bangladesh is also a fast urbanizing country although its level of urbanization is still low (30.46%) in 2010 and (35.86%) in 2017 (Statistical report, 2017). Dhaka has a population of approximately 12 million residents, including 3 million in unincorporated areas and Dhaka’s population is expected to reach 20 million in the year of 2020 making it one of the world's most populous cities (World Bank, 2007). Dhaka is growing even faster, at the rate of more than 6 percent per annum, while the environmental services provided by the City Corporation and other city authorities are not increasing with the pace of its population growth. On the contrary, the provision of environmental services available within the city corporations is highly unequally distributed. To analyze the spatial inequality of urban environmental services, mainly secondary data has been used from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics among the data of 90 wards of Dhaka City Corporation. Data have been collected and analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) and the result is shown by GIS maps. The result revealed that there were a lot of spatial inequalities of urban environmental services among the 90 wards of Dhaka City Corporation. This study has displayed how such kinds of inequalities have been taken place among the 90 wards of Dhaka City Corporation with the causes of inequalities in terms of Urban Environmental Services. Some recommendations have also been given to reduce the existing inequality for sustainable development of Dhaka City Corporation. 

9.

Title

Local People’s Initiatives in Disaster Risk Reduction in Costal Bangladesh; A Sociological Study in Dakope: An Exploratory Study

Author

Pratima Dev

PhD Student, Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies (IDMVS)

University of Dhaka,

 

Sajal K. Roy

Ethical Trade executive, Primark.

 

Abstract

Bangladesh is one of the most climate induced disasters in vulnerable countries in the world and will become even more so in the coming decades as a result of climate change. Floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe in the coming years. The objective of the study was to explore the nature of local people’s initiatives of the south-western part of Bangladesh to reduce disaster vulnerability. The study intended to find out different levels of initiatives at the family level, community level and institutional level to reduce disaster risk. Most of the previous researchers tried to find out the nature, vulnerability and coping mechanism of vulnerable groups. This paper instead of finding mere knowledge and coping mechanism of local people, intended to sense using personal and local (local community and local institutional) mechanism they use to face disaster. A triangulation of both qualitative and quantitative methodology was used connecting with Ulrich Beck’s theory on risk society to conceptualize the study. The study found that, local people have various sort of initiatives in their daily life to reduce disaster risk. Three forms of initiatives were found namely, Personal, Community and Institutional initiatives. Among various personal initiatives likely, making houses on higher ground, saving food for emergency needs are noticeable. In community level they were found to use community workers or committee members to create a strong disaster signal system and after disaster risk reduction methods like providing food and water and sharing left resources among neighbor after disaster. The institutional initiatives refer to the initiatives taken by local NGOs and government authorities likely, the reconstruction of embankment and sluice gate etc. 

10.

Title

Revisiting the Procedures Adopted by Banks to Finance SMEs: An Empirical Study

Author

S M ASHRAFUL ISLAM

Faculty, Bangladesh Institute of Peace Support Operation Training (BIPSOT)

Rajendrapur Cantonment

Abstract

The government of Bangladesh has broadly described the importance and modalities of financing SMEs by financial institutions in Industrial Policies 2016. SMEs are quite focused to finance by the financial institutions, especially by banks. Often there are debatable issues between banks and SMEs regarding funding procedures. Banks receive funds from Bangladesh Bank and other international development agencies. These financiers have prescribed criterion to grant a loan for the SME. The present study will analyze the present scenario, possibilities, concerns, and constraints to evaluate procedures adopted by banks to finance SMEs. For this exploratory research, a convenient sample size of 50 entrepreneurs and 10 commercial banks were randomly selected from three districts. During the study, it was found that the SME loan procedures required to complete as many as 10 to 12 various steps. Besides, lack of policy support, inappropriate information, high bank interest rate, hidden cost, inadequate grace period or moratorium and non-availability of mortgage or collateral are the main difficulties faced by the SMEs. Also, banks have considered the ability and intention to repay the loan, the requirement of working capital, business cycle, national festivals, owner’s equity-credit-capital machinery ratio, business profiles and type of finished products etc. to grant the loan. In conclusion, this study suggested appropriate measures for the banks to efficiently finance SMEs.

11.

Title

জনসংখ্যা সমস্যা ও ইসলাম : প্রেক্ষাপট বাংলাদেশ

 Author

ড. মোঃ ইব্রাহীম খলিল
সহকারী অধ্যাপক, ইসলামিক স্টাডিজ বিভাগ, জগন্নাথ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, ঢাকা।

কামরুজ্জামান
সহকারী অধ্যাপক (ইসলামিক স্টাডিজ), সামাজিক বিজ্ঞান, মানবিক ও ভাষা স্কুল
বাংলাদেশ উন্মুক্ত বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, গাজীপুর ১৭০৫।

Abstract

বাংলাদেশের সামাজিক সমস্যাসমূহের মধ্যে জনসংখ্যা সমস্যা অন্যতম। সীমিত সম্পদ, অসীম প্রয়োজন আর অনিয়ন্ত্রিত ও অপরিকল্পিত জনগোষ্ঠী এ সমস্যাকে প্রকট করে তুলেছে। বিভিন্ন সময়ে দেশের প্রায় সকল সরকারের অগ্রাধিকারপ্রাপ্ত সমস্যাগুলোর মধ্যে এটি শীর্ষে ছিল। কিন্তু নানা কারণে সমস্যাটির কাঙ্খিত সমাধান সম্ভব হয়নি। বাংলাদেশের অধিকাংশ মানুষ ইসলাম ধর্মের অনুসারী ও ধর্মভীরু। পরিকল্পিত জীবন যাপনের ব্যাপারে ইসলামের এমন সুনির্দিষ্ট ও সুস্পষ্ট নির্দেশনা রয়েছে যে, এ সকল নির্দেশনার সঠিক অনুসরণ বাংলাদেশের জনসংখ্যা সমাধানে তাৎপর্যবহ ভূমিকা রাখতে সক্ষম হবে। অথচ পরিস্থিতি পুরোপুরি ভিন্ন। ইসলামি বিধানের সঠিক বোধগম্যতা না থাকার কারণে এ দেশের অধিকাংশ মুসলমান পরিকল্পিত পরিবার গঠনে কোনো উদ্যোগ গ্রহণ করেননি। ইসলামি আহকামের সঠিক জ্ঞান না থাকায় যে আবেগ পরিকল্পিত পরিবার গঠনে ভূমিকা রাখতে পারতো, সে আবেগই অপরিকল্পিত পরিবার গঠনের অন্যতম প্রধান নিয়ামকে পরিণত হয়েছে। এ পরিস্থিতিতে বাংলাদেশের জনসংখ্যা সমস্যা সমাধানে ইসলামি বিধিসমূহের যথাযথ মূল্যায়ন এবং তা বাস্তবায়নের কার্যকর উপায় অন্বেষণ আবশ্যক। আলোচ্য প্রবন্ধে এ উপায় অন্বেষণ করা হয়েছে।